Moisture content for the perennial grasses was critical almost all summer. Rykštinės soros veislių biomasės derlius, biomasės cheminė sudėtis ir jos tinkamumas biokuro gamybai tiek Lietuvoje, tiek ir kaimyninėse šalyse nėra ištirti.
Virgina Adolfina Draugelienë A. Kavoliuko g. Genë Ona Sruogienë A. Petras Puzinas Raimonda Algimanta Skutele P. Ona Vaièiulienë Aguonø g. Liudmila Èebotariova Architektø g. Aurelija Ðidlauskienë Patentinës patikëtinës Aurelijos Ðidlauskienës firma Zita Grigienë K. Bûgos g. Juozas Virþonis Tulpiø g. Ramunë Garðvienë Dûkðtø g. Otilija Klimaitienë V. Druskio g. Graþina Peèiulienë P. Vileiðio g.
Sigitas Bartkus Breslaujos g. Danutë Liðauskaitë Studentø g. Aleksandras Loginovas Studentø g. Marija Vanda Antanaitienë p. Engineered wooden floors is best for kitchens, basements and powder rooms. Cast Ground: Any plank that from best to backside is identical piece of wooden is regarded as forged floor. That is the most typical kind and works in any space of your house this is above floor degree.
Plank Ground: Plank is wider than different kinds of strip floor. The environmental safety requirements steer the focus to non-edible plants Hochman et al.
The C 4 plants could provide an efficient solution for the development of innovative energy industry Samson et al. The C 4 refers to the 4- carbon molecule as the first product of this photosynthesis pathway. The C 4 plants are more productive and resistant to prolonged droughts and heat due to the reduction in photorespiration compared to the plants employing the C 3 pathway brutnell et al.
Only the minority of the C 4 plants can adapt easily to the cool climate of Europe. For the most part those are the weed species with high ecological plasticity and usually growing in secondary ecotopes Setaria viridis, Echinochloa crus-galli, Digitaria sanguinalis etc. Motiekaitytė, ; Vainorienė, Multiple problems can be faced while trying to introduce economically important C 4 plants to the countries of Northern Europe.
Quite often the tropical plant species e. Pennisetum purpureum, Miscanthus giganteus, Spartina pectinata, suffer high damages or die out completely jamie eason riebalų nuostolių kamino the winter Sage et al. Some of them M. Switchgrass Panicum virgatum is a perennial outcrossing C 4 plant species from the Poaceae family originating in North America Casler, which has drawn the attention as the candidate for biofuel production in Europe Alexopoulou et al.
In North America it is used for soil erosion prevention, feed production and grazing. During the recent decades switchgrass biomass was also used for solid biofuel, second generation bioethanol and biogas production Lewandowski et al. Switchgrass jamie eason riebalų nuostolių kamino many advantages in comparison to C 3 plants: it is much better yielding, persistent and resistant to droughts.
Furthermore, it has low fertilization requirements, there is no need for pesticide application and the harvesting expenses are low Mani, ; McLaughlin, Kszos, ; Samson, Unlike M. The data on switchgrass adaptation to the climatic conditions of Central and North Europe is scarce Elbersen et al. Only the ornamental switchgrass cultivars have been introduced in Lithuania so far.
Therefore little is known about its ability to adapt to the local environmental conditions, productivity and crop management. No cultivar testing for the biomass chemical composition, yield potential and suitability of said yield for the biofuel production has been performed in Lithuania or neighbouring countries. Providing high yielding switchgrass cultivars or populations might be of paramount importance to the development of local energy sector.
Switchgrass can have multiple applications, and each of these applications, such as feed and different types of biofuel production, has its own quality requirements Guretzky et al. The dynamics of mineral element and organic compound content in plant biomass depends on many factors El-Nashaar et al. Very little to no 7 8 switchgrass biomass quality research has been done in the Nemoral zone Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Belorussia, Sweden, Norway and Finland.
Perennial grass species have a high energy potential, therefore plant biomass could at least partially replace fossil biofuels Jakienė et al. High yet very realistic hopes are placed on the progress of technologies used for biomass-energy conversion which could reduce the cost of lignocellulose processing and consequently increase the demand for high yielding energetic plants. Switchgrass Panicum virgatum L.
The geographic origin, ploidy level and cutting management of switchgrass populations can be important factors governing its biomass yield and quality. Aim of the study. To evaluate switchgrass phenotypic traits and economically important agro-biological characteristics, to establish the optimal cutting management and to identify the most valuable germplasm material for the cultivation in the European Nemoral zone.
Objectives of the study: 1. To evaluate the morphological traits and economically important characteristics of switchgrass populations; 2. To establish the effect of harvesting time and number on switchgrass biomass productivity; 3. To establish the effect of harvesting time and number on total switchgrass biomass chemical composition and the chemical composition of plant morphological organs; 4.
To select the most valuable switchgrass genotypes based on the complex of desirable phenotypic traits and economically important agrobiological characteristics Defended statements: 1. Switchgrass species can be successfully introduced to the European Nemoral zone; 2.
Geographic origin of switchgrass population, ploidy level and cutting management have a significant effect on biomass yield; 3. Chemical composition of switchgrass biomass depends on cutting management and geographic origin of the genotype; 4. The most valuable switchgrass genotypes can be used as an economically efficient energy crop in the European Nemoral zone.
Scientific novelty. The switchgrass acclimatization to the conditions of Ar abs padeda numesti svorio Nemoral zone has been evaluated for the first time.
The upland ecotypes demonstrated sufficient winter-hardiness, reached the heading stage earlier than lowland ecotypes and were able to produce viable seeds during the vegetation season. The lowland ecotypes were highly susceptible to local winter conditions.
Biuro Turystyczne Bezkresy Lietuvos Respublikos valstybinio patentø biuro oficialiame biuletenyje skelbiami iðradimai, dizainas, prekiø þenklai, registruoti Lietuvos Respublikos registruose pagal m. Lietuvos Respublikos prekiø þenklø ástatymà Nr. VIII, m. Lietuvos Respublikos patentø ástatymà Nr.
Octoploid and mixed-ploidy populations produced higher biomass yield compared to tetraploid switchgrass populations. Switchgrass plants produce the highest biomass yield when harvesting is performed once, at the seed ripening stage; two cuts per season lead to yield reduction in the subsequent years of harvesting.
The evaluation of productivity and biomass quality trait jamie eason riebalų nuostolių kamino 8 9 namics demonstrated that switchgrass is more suitable for solid biofuel and second generation bioethanol than biogas production. This type of extensive switchgrass biomass yield and quality research under the climatic conditions of European Nemoral zone has not been previously reported.
Practical importance. Superior switchgrass genotypes were jamie eason riebalų nuostolių kamino based on the complex of phenotypic traits and economically important agrobiological characteristics.
These genotypes can be used on a large scale for biomass production for energy production purposes. The switchgrass genotypic and phenotypic diversity results acquired during this research will kaip numesti svorį aplink abs efficient breeding efforts of this species.
The crop management can be optimized based on the switchgrass phenological development yield relationship data, and the established regularities in plant biomass mineral and organic compound content variation enable rational choice of harvesting time in order to obtain high quality biomass for bioenergy production. Approval of the dissertation work. The research data was published in 3 articles in the journals indexed in Clarivate Analytics Web of Science database with the citation index; 2 publications in the peer-reviewed periodical of scientific journals and 6 publications in conference proceedings and abstract books.
The research results were presented in 11 national and international conferences. Part of the research data is presented in the chapter of the published Springer book Renewable Energy in the Service of Mankind. Volume and structure of the dissertation. The dissertation has been written in Lithuanian. It consists of pages. It is composed of a summary, introduction, literature review, materials and methods, results and discussion, conclusions, references, a list of publications, copies of published articles and appendixes.
The dissertation includes 12 tables, 40 figures. The research germplasm consisted of wild ecotypes 54 accessionsbreeding lines 3 accessions and cultivars 19 accessions of switchgrass Panicum virgatum L.
Study site. The soil of the experimental site is Endocalcari-Epihypogleyic Cambisol CMg-p-w-can with a texture of moderately heavy loam. The chemical properties of the soil in the initial stage of the experiment and at the end of the investigations are presented in Table 1.
In the autumn, the fields were plowed, in spring, pre-sowing the fields were harrowed, cultivated and leveled. Additional fertilization after harvest and each spring of the following years were spread. Establishment of experiments Two germplasm collections of switchgrass and one field experiment were established in and The first germplasm collection of switchgrass collection I was set up in It consisted of 36 wild populations of switchgrass.
The evaluation of the agrobiological characteristics and biomass yield were recorded in, and years. Simulating the species management under commercial cultivation conditions, the grass was harvested in two cutting regimes.
In the first regime, the grass was cut once at seed maturity stage for use as feedstock for second generation bioethanol and as solid biofuel. In the second regime, the grass was cut twice per season: at beginning of anthesis and after regrowth of the aftermath as a feedstock for biogas.
The second germplasm collection of switchgrass collection II was set up in It consisted of 68 wild populations, cultivars and breeding lines of switchgrass. The evaluation of the agrobiological characteristics and biomass yield were made in and The plants were harvested only once per season at seed maturity stage. The higher yielding accessions during both study years were identified. Field experiment was set up in and consisted of three cultivars 'Dacotah', 'Cave in Rock', 'Forestburg' and one hybrid population of switchgrass.
Hybrid population was created from the cross of wild population originated from North Dacota. Simulating the species management under commercial cultivation conditions, the plants in the experimental plots were harvested in two cutting regimes.
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In the first regime, the plants were cut once for biomass use as feedstock for second generation bioethanol and as solid biofuel: 1 at seed maturity stage: day of the year DOY in and DOY in ; 2 before winter: DOY in and DOY in ; 3 after winter in spring: DOY 90 in and DOY 91 in 11 In the second regime, the grass was cut twice per season for biomass use as a feedstock for biogas: 1 jamie eason riebalų nuostolių kamino first cut was done at the beginning of anthesis: DOY in and ; the second cut was done after re-growth of ar galite vartoti tiroksiną kad sulieknėtumėte DOY in and DOY in ; 2 the first cut was done at the beginning of flowering: DOY in and DOY in ; the second cut was done after re-growth of aftermath: DOY in and DOY in In the field experiment seed yields kg ha -1 of different populations were evaluated as well.
The collections were set up using two-month old seedlings grown in a greenhouse. The seedlings were planted at a distance of 50 cm, in cm apart rows, with seven collecion I or ten collecion II plants per row and two rows per replication. The field trial was laid out in randomized complete block design with two-fold replication, thus, having a total of 28 collecion I or 40 collecion II plants per field trial. 16 dienų lieknėti experiment was sown on 10 of June using seeder Hege The field trial was laid out in randomized complete block design with three-fold replication.
The experimental treatment plot size was m 2. The sown seed rate was 12 kg ha The investigations in the collection I lasted for 5 years, in the collection II and field experiment for 3 years. Research methods The evaluation of agro-biological characteristics and morphological traits of switchgrass Morphological traits and agronomically valuable characteristics of switchgrass populations were estimated in absolute values and points according to the standards of visual assessment methods presented by the International Plant Genetic Jamie eason riebalų nuostolių kamino Institute and adapted in the European Cooperative Programme for Plant Genetic Resources Tyler et al.
Dry matter yield was determined by drying g herbage samples at C to constant moisture. The analysis was performed in plant leaf tissue. The data from the flow cytometric analysis were used to estimate plant genome size, i. The Standard used for the comparison was wheat Triticum spp.
Sample Preparation and Chemical Analyses Fresh plant samples, chopped into pieces of 3 5 cm length, were initially dried at C for 15 min and then dried at 65 ± 5 C for 24 hrs and ground in a cyclonic mill with a 1 mm sieve. Concentrations of water-soluble carbohydrates WSC in water extracts of dried samples were measured spectrophotometrically using the anthrone reagent Zhao et al. Starch, a water-insoluble component of nonstructural carbohydrates NSC was determined in plant biomass residue after WSC washing with ethanol and water and hydrolysis with enzymes α-amylase and amyloglucosidase; released glucose was assayed following procedures described by D.
Zhao et al. The ash content was determined as the mass left after sample incineration at ±10 ºC consistently with EN Dai et al. Kraska, G. Breitenbeck Potassium Kcalcium Casodium Na and magnesium Mg were quantified after digestion with the sulphuric acid by atomic absorption spectrophotometry AAS. Chloride Cl was determined in the extracts obtained by mol L -1 Ca NO 3 2 water solution spectrophotometrically after Cl substitutes the thiocyanate ions in mercury 12 13 thiocyanate and the released thiocyanate forms a red iron-thiocyanate complex Liu, ; Gaines et al.
Absorption was measured at the wavelength nm. All results were expressed on dry matter basis. Statistical analysis Before analysis, all data were tested for normality Shapiro Wilk test, P 0. A descriptive statistics was used for data analysis. Mean±SE standard error of mean were used to describe the variability of measurements. The means were compared by t-test and F-test. The correlation Pearson s correlation and regression analysis between the data sets was done.
Analysis of variance was performed to estimate the differences in the tested parameters among the treatments year and genotype. All principal components were derived using correlation matrices based on population-means. The plot and the curve of eigenvalues, expected under a random model, indicated the number of significant components. Meteorological conditions According to the environmental stratification of Europe, Lithuania is assigned to the Nemoral zone with the cool temperate climate and quite a short growing season of days Metzger et al.
The annual mean precipitation in the experimental site is mm and mean annual temperature is C. The average temperature in January, the coldest month in Lithuania, is However during the experimental period the weather conditions markedly differed between seasons.
Jei kurmis palieka
The first season of was characterized by a cold and long-lasting winter, very late, dry and warm spring and changeable summer with heat waves. Autumn winter period of can be defined as unusually warm with temperatures prevailing positive: the average monthly temperature in January and February was more than 5 C higher than long-term average. The winter of was late, short, with a thin up to 5 cm snow cover, and moderately deep 55 58 cm layer of frozen soil. The spring was very early, windy, and changeable in terms of temperature and precipitation distribution cold days alternated with hot ones.
The summer was changeable in terms of temperature and precipitation distribution: chilly June, hot July, rainy and hot first 10 days August. The autumn was warm, dry, windy, and long.
The winter of was short, without a permanent snow cover, but with a shallow approximately 20 cm depth layer of frozen soil which lasted for 94 days.
V suteiktą doktorantūros teisę Aleksandro Stulginskio universitetui su Lietuvos agrarinių ir miškų, mokslų centru Mokslinė vadovė: Dr. Aleksandro Stulginskio universiteto Centrinių rūmų auditorijoje.
The weather was uncharacteristically warm and wet. There were many foggy and windy days that winter. The spring was very early, long, windy, and contrasting in terms of temperature warm days alternated with cold ones. The summer was changeable: August was the 13 14 hottest, driest, and very sunny, while June and July were cool and rainy.
Moisture content for the perennial grasses was critical almost all summer. The season of was characterized by warm winter and warm, windy and wet spring.
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Summer season was unusually rainy and changeable in terms of temperature. The autumn was warm and dry. Based on observations of this study, it appears that winter injury in switchgrass is most likely to occur during the establishment year when plants are less mature and have smaller root systems.
Wild populations and cultivars, originating in the southern states of USA, were severely damaged after the first winter or did not survive at all. The average date of switchgrass heading was the middle of July DOY. The analysis of regression indicated that the earliness of heading of switchgrass populations negatively correlated with the latitude of their geographic origin Fig.
Figure 1. The relationship between the beginning of heading day of year and the geographic origin of switchgrass populations in and year. The beginning of heading stage is expressed in calendar days since the jamie eason riebalų nuostolių kamino of January 14 15 A B Figure 2.
Principal growth jamie eason riebalų nuostolių kamino 4 booting, 5 inflorescence e- mergence, heading, 6 flowering, anthesis, 7 development of fruit, 8 ripening, 9 senescence 15 16 Cultivar 'Dacotah' place of origin North Dakota, USA reached all phenological growth stages earlier than other cultivars, it s vegetation lasted for days in total.
Whereas cultivar 'Cave in Rock', originating in southern USA, was the latest one and did not go through ripening stage during the vegetation season Figure 2. The optimum temperature requirements for vegetative and reproductive development differed among the cultivars. The stage of fruit development of cultivar 'Cave in Rock' started at growing degree days GDD whereas the values of GDD for the cultivar 'Dacotah' were The duration of growth stages in calendar days was also different.
Heading and flowering lasted longer than other growth stages. Switchgrass reproductive development from heading to full seed ripening lasted for 80 days on average.
The number of vegetative and generative tillers per bunch, seed weight, seed yield per plant and seed yield per plot were the most variable switchgrass svorio netekimas perimenopauzė, whereas plant height and bunch diameter were the most stable traits Table 2.
Table 2. Summary of the basic morphological and economically useful properties characteristics of switchgrass wild populations and cultivars in Traits Units Mean Mode SD Min. Switchgrass plant height till the start of generative development highly depends on GDD.
The impact of weather conditions in different years on generative tiller number was greater than genotypic effect, in contrast to generative tiller weight which was more dependent on genotype than the environment. The correlation analysis confirmed that diameter, weight and number of internodes were positively correlated with generative tiller height.
The weight and diameter of generative tillers 16 17 could be used in switchgrass genotype screening and biomass yield modelling as indirect productivity indicator. Most of tetraploid switchgrass populations and cultivars were grouped separately from octoploid and mixed-ploidy populations based on the vegetative tiller number and leaf weight in principal component analysis Figure 3.
Octoploid populations clustered into the group which was also characterized by higher plants, longer and wider leaves, late heading and larger biomass yield. The variation of morphological trait values was low hiit dėl riebalų nuostolių rezultatų the group of tetraploid populations, originating from North Dakota. These populations were more resistant to over-wintering conditions and had higher panicle weight.
Figure 3. Red marked populations are tetraploid, blue octoploid, green mixed ploidy, black ploidy not detected. In the second treatment, when grass was cut twice per season at the beginning of anthesis and after re-growth of the aftermath the dry matter yield in the first harvest year was g plant Figure 4. Dry matter yield DMY of switchgrass harvested once and twice per season in Error bars indicate standard error of the mean The best-performing accessions based on the increase over mean yield over four harvesting years were identified.
When the grass was harvested once per season, the highest yielding accessions were No. In the second treatment, when the grass was harvested twice per season, the highest yielding accessions were No.
These best-performing accessions with higher dry matter yield are acknowledged as valuable genetic source for future breeding projects. The current study, comparing four years biomass partitioning among ploidy groups under single harvest system revealed that mixed-ploidy populations maintained their superiority over jamie eason riebalų nuostolių kamino and octoploid populations and significantly out-yielded them 18 19 Figure 5.
For example, in the first harvest year when the accessions had been harvested once per season the yield was very similar: a small variation in the dry matter between the ploidy groups was seen but significant differences were not detected.
However, in the second and subsequent years, the yields between the ploidy groups differed significantly, and the difference was increasing every year. The mixed-ploidy populations produced the highest dry matter yield in the third and fourth harvest year and g plant -1 respectivelyand octoploid populations in the third year g plant Figure 5.
Dry matter yield DMY of switchgrass wild populations differing in ploidy level when cut once and twice per season in year. Error bars indicate standard error of the mean Switchgrass yields among ploidy groups as affected by two cuts frequency varied by year. In the first harvest year, the yield of tetraploid and mixed-ploidy populations was slightly higher than in octoploid populations.
In the second harvest year, no significant differences in yields between the tested ploidy groups were observed. Despite the tendency of the yield to significantly decrease with the plant age, it is interesting to note that in the third harvest year octoploid and mixed-ploidy populations produced higher annual dry matter yield comparing with tetraploids. Switchgrass yields typically are positively related to rainfall during the growing season Precipitation during the growing season was 55 mm below historic averages for the research site.
The yield stability of mixedploidy populations in may reflect greater plasticity in part due to increased ploidy. It is believed that an increase in chromosome number in polyploid plant populations enhan- 19 20 ces the level of heterozygosity and creates prerequisites for better adaptation of the species, i. Warner et al. Therefore, increased scientific knowledge on how stresses limit the productivity of different ploidy groups is needed in order to move forward and further improve the productivity and sustainability of switchgrass.
Switchgrass crop dry matter yield is significantly affected by the weather conditions, harvesting time and genotype. The highest dry matter yield over two years of harvesting was obtained in cuts made in DOY 4. The dry matter yield of switchgrass crop significantly increased in the second year of harvesting and this trend was detected in all cuts.
Figure 6. The average dry matter yield DMY of switchgrass crop at different harvest time in and Harvest time is expressed as day of year after 1 January: 1 ; and ; and ; and ; 5 90 and Error bars indicate standard error of the mean The comparison of dry matter yield of three cultivars and one hybrid population o- ver two years demonstrated that cultivar 'Cave in Rock' was the most productive.
The a- verage dry matter yield of this cultivar was 6. Similar trends were recorded for the rest of cultivars and hybrid population. The biomass moisture when harvesting was done in the beginning of winter svorio metimas vyksta taip lėtai also optimal No significant differences in late winter early spring cut biomass moisture were recorded between the cultivars and hybrid populations.
However in September the differences were much more apparent: cultivar 'Dacotah' biomass moisture was significantly lower Chemical composition of switchgrass biomass The assessment of organic compound content and its dynamics is important for the evaluation of suitability of switchgrass genotypes for biofuel production as well as its impact on the environment. Our results demonstrated that organic compound content and variation was highly dependent on environmental conditions and timing of harvesting.
The concentration of C was significantly higher during first year of harvesting compared to the second year of harvesting. In both years the C content was highest when switchgrass plants were harvested in DOY The highest carbon gain t ha -1 was recorded when plants were cut in DOY 2.
The biomass carbon gain was significantly influenced by plant genotype with cultivar 'Cave in Rock' being the most productive in terms of C carbon gain 3. Table 3. The concentration of C, N and C:N ratio of switchgrass biomass depending on harvest year and harvest time in m. Biomass N concentration in the first year of harvesting was 9.
The average N content in the first cut biomass performed in DOY was g kg -1 dry matter yield; the average aftermath biomass N content was g kg -1 dry matter yield. The lowest C:N ratio was assessed in the biomass, cut in the July of the first year of harvesting The harvesting time was the main factor influencing Klason lignin concentration in the switchgrass biomass.
The later the date of harvesting, the higher lignin content was recorded, reaching the peak g kg -1 dry matter yield in the biomass, harvested at the beginning of winter DOY Figure 7.
ADF and NDF concentrations were the highest in the biomass harvested at the end of vegetation season, at DOY day of the year g kg -1 dry matter yield and g kg -1 dry matter yield. Figure 7. The concentration of Klason lignin in switchgrass biomass at different harvest time in and Harvest time is expressed as day of year after 1 January: 1 ; and ; and ; and ; 5 90 and 91; 6 aftermath from first cut.
RYKŠTINĖS SOROS (PANICUM VIRGATUM L.) AGROBIOLOGINIS POTENCIALAS EUROPOS NEMORALINĖJE ZONOJE
Error bars indicate standard error of the mean The biomass cellulose content followed the same tendency of increasing in the later cuts; the mean concentration in the pilvo svoris sumažėja plants BBCH was g kg -1 dry matter yield, whereas the biomass of plants cut at the end of the season DOY contained g kg -1 dry matter yield of cellulose. The highest hemicellulose concentration was recorded in the first cut jamie eason riebalų nuostolių kamino Significant differences were recorded between the lignocellulose compound concentration in different parts of the plant.
The highest degree of lignification was estimated in the tillers of the plants, harvested at the 22 23 end of the growth season. The dynamics of non-structural carbohydrate content was highly dependent on harvesting time and environmental conditions. The WSC and starch content was higher in the plant biomass of the first harvesting year than the second year. Based on two year data the starch content was higher in the first cut at DOY g kg -1 dry matter yieldand the aftermath biomass was richer in WSC At the end of the growing season switchgrass panicles and leaves contained higher concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates The switchgrass biomass, harvested in the early cuts, can be suitable for biogas production, feed or compost due to its higher N, CH 2O and lower C:N ratio compared to the later cuts.
The quality of the chemical composition of the aftermath biomass was lower than the first cut biomass in terms of its suitability for biogas production. The biomass harvested in late cuts can be more suitable for solid biofuel production. If the harvesting was made at the seed ripening stage the plants, especially their tillers, can be used as stock for second-generation bioethanol or solid biofuel production. Performing the cuts later in year tended to significantly decrease the biomass ash content.
The lowest ash content was recorded in the biomass, harvested after winter, in March When the ash content of different plant parts was compared, the results demonstrated that it was the lowest in the tillers and comprised only g kg -1 dry matter yield.
The concentrations of mineral elements decreased in the late cuts Figure 8. Figure 8. The concentration of phosphorus was estimated to be up to 1.
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The highest Ca content was assessed in the biomass harvested before winter, 6. The S concentration was the highest in September 0. Si content was mostly uniform in the cuts, but differed among the years of harvesting: in the first year it was 2.
The tillers contained less ash, Mg, Si, P and S compared to the leaves and panicles. Ca, Mg and Si concentrations were the highest in the leaves, and panicles contained more of the elements, constituting the proteins. The mean concentrations of K and Cl in the tillers and panicles were similar. Principal component analysis demonstrated the relationships between biomass chemical composition, agro-biological traits and geographic origin of switchgrass populations Figure 9, Figure 9.
Accessions numbers are presented in black and latitude of their geographic origin in red. Pattern of relations between indicators of switchgrass biomass chemical content and agrobiological traits.
The biomass of the northern populations contained more cellulose, C, starch, higher C:N ratio whereas southern populations had higher N, P, K, Cl, Mg and S concentrations in their biomass. The biomass quality traits also correlated with the heading date.
PCA results simplified the grouping of switchgrass populations according to their biomass quality and agro-biological traits as well as facilitated the selection of the genotypes most suitable for biogas, second generation bioethanol or solid biofuel production. Wild switchgrass ecotypes originating from North Dakota, USA, do not undergo winter damage under Lithuanian conditions. Populations originating in the southern regions of USA suffer severe winter injuries or get killed completely.
Switchgrass vegetation lasts for days on average under Lithuanian conditions. The plant development from heading to full ripening takes 80 days on average. The temperature requirements for full seed ripening BBCH 8 are growing degree days.
The earliest switchgrass population reach the stage of ripening at the start of September. The populations originating to the south of 38 Northern latitude do not undergo all developmental stages during vegetation season under Lithuanian conditions. Switchgrass is a highly polymorphic species. Tiller number per bunch, seed yield and seed weight were the most variable traits; plant height and bunch diameter were the most stable.
The different ploidy groups are distinguished according to the plant vegetative tiller number and leaf weight.
The weight and diameter of generative tillers can be used in switchgrass genotype screening as indirect productivity indicator. Switchgrass biomass yield tends to increase during the years of use if one cut is made during the season, but decrease if two cuts are made. Octoploid and mixedploidy populations are better yielding than tetraploid populations. The highest yield differences were recorded during the droughty year, indicating that populations with higher ploidy level have a wider ecological jamie eason riebalų nuostolių kamino.
Harvesting time plays an important role in switchgrass biomass yield and its moisture content. The highest dry matter yield during the vegetation season was recorded in September up to 5. Therefore the most optimal switchgrass cutting time is right after frosts or at the beginning of winter if the biomass is intended to be used for biofuel.
Switchgrass biomass harvested in July BBCH 5 contains more N and CH 2O, less lignin and the C:N ratio is lower compared to later harvests, therefore it is most suitable for biogas, feed or compost production. When cuts are made at the seed ripening or senescence stages BBCH 8 9 the biomass is more suitable for solid biofuel due to decrease in ash and most of the mineral element contents, or it can be used for second generation bioethanol production as the biomass contains highest levels of lignocellulose at these plant growth stages.
The tillers contain the least amount of ash and mineral elements, the concentration of Ca, Mg and Si are the highest in the leaves; and panicles at the stage of seed ripening contain more P and S. The Cl and Na content is uniform in different plant organs. Thirteen wild ecotypes Nr. They can also be used in switchgrass breeding programmes aimed at creating new cultivars, adapted to the local conditions.
Norkevičienė, N. Lemežienė, J. Cesevičienė, B. Butkutė Switchgrass from North Dakota a new bioenergy crop in the nemoral zone of Europe. Zemdirbystė Agriculture, 2 : Lemežienė N. Norkevičienė, V. Kemešytė, G. Dabkevičienė, B. Butkutė Yield of Lithuania-grown mesti riebalus vasarą populations differing in ploidy level.
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Kaunas, p Monographs, books, textbooks and their sections published by international publishers 1. Butkutė B. In: A. Sayigh ed. Springer International Publishing Switzerland, p Abstracts in the conference proceedings 1. Norkevičienė E. Mokslinės konferencijos pranešimai Nr. Įvairios paskirties Lietuvoje mažai kultivuojamų rūšių selekcija. Popular press articles 1. Mano ūkis, gegužė, p Norkevičienė E Augalai ateities pasauliui.
Ūkininko patarėjas, Nr. Inshe finished Kalnas secondary school in Raseiniai, Lithuania and entered Vilnius University. Inshe obtained a Bachelor s degree in Biology. Inshe graduated Vilnius University with a Master s degree in Biology. SinceE. Bronislava Butkutė and scientific consultant dr.
Nijolė Lemežienė for their valuable advice, encouragement, patience, ingenious guidance, as well as assistance in writing scientific publications and thesis. Thanks to all the employees of Grass Breeding Department, Chemical Research Laboratory and Laboratory of Genetics and Physiology for their practical advice and assistance in the research and laboratory analyses. Many thanks to my friends Daiva, Bernd Gliwa, Arūnas and Ričiardas who advised, supported, and encouraged me.
Most of all I would like to thank my daughter Urte, my husband Donatas and my Parents for leading me firmly toward the goal. Dear Family, thank you for being my biggest supporters. Bronislavai Butkutei už idėjas, patarimus, pastabas, pasiūlymus, už visą man skirtą laiką, energiją, kantrybę ir išmintį.
Esu labai dėkinga mokslinio darbo konsultantei dr. Nijolei Lemežienei už vertingas mokslines konsultacijas ir patarimus rengiant mokslines publikacijas ir disertaciją. Esu dėkinga visam Žolių selekcijos skyriaus kolektyvui už nuoširdžią pagalbą vykdant mokslinius tyrimus ir draugišką darbų atmosferą. Dėkoju draugams Daivai ir Bernd Gliwa bei Arūnui ir Ričardui už mokslines ir gyvenimiškas diskusijas, palaikymą ir padrąsinimą.
Labiausiai noriu padėkoti dukrai Urtei, vyrui Donatui ir Tėveliams už visą kartu nueitą kelią tikslo link ir nuolatinį skatinimą tobulėti. Širdingas ačiū visai šeimai už tai, kad visada buvo šalia.